What Should Be Inside a Chicken Coop? Essential Guide

Whether you’re a seasoned farmer or a backyard poultry enthusiast, creating the right environment for your chickens is paramount to their health, productivity, and overall well-being. Understanding their needs is important, and in this guide, we will take you through the fundamental needs of chickens and the vital elements that should be considered when designing and deciding jat to have inside a chicken coop.

Once identified these broad needs, it is time to delve into the specifics of what elements to include in your chicken coop.

So, before starting to talk about what desirable features a chicken coop should have, we must look at the needs of Chickens to improve their health and welfare. 

chickens management

The Needs of Chickens Can be Classified Under a Few Broad Categories:

Safety and Protection:

Chickens need protection from predators, so the coop must be secure. It should be sturdy, with no gaps or holes where predators can get in. The door should have a secure latch, and if a chicken run is attached, it should be enclosed with a sturdy wire fence that is dug into the ground to prevent predators from digging under it.

Shelter and Comfort:

The coop should protect from the elements. It should be watertight and provide shade in hot weather. It should also be well-ventilated to prevent the build-up of ammonia from chicken droppings, but without causing excessive drafts that may affect chickens’ health, especially in cold weather.


Each chicken needs space to move around and express natural behaviors. Overcrowding can lead to stress, disease, and aggressive behaviors like feather pecking. Generally, each chicken should have at least 4 square feet inside a chicken coop and 8-10 square feet in an outside run.

Roosting and Nesting:

Chickens need a place to sleep off the ground, so roosts should be provided. They also need nesting boxes to lay their eggs.

Food and Water:

Chickens need constant access to fresh food and water. The containers should be designed to prevent contamination by droppings and be easy to clean and access at any time.


The coop needs to be kept clean. Bedding should be used to absorb droppings and should be changed regularly. The design of the inside of a chicken coop should make it easy to clean.


Chickens need things to do to prevent boredom and feather pecking. This might include perches, dust baths, and access to an outdoor run where they can scratch and peck at the ground.


Chickens need light to regulate their laying cycles. They typically need about 14-16 hours of light daily to lay eggs consistently. This can be natural light or artificial light can be used in the darker months.

When setting up your farm, each group of animals is unique, and their needs may vary depending on factors such as breed, age, local climate, and whether they are being raised for meat, eggs, or both.

Features That Should Be Present Inside a Chicken Coop

So, analyze your resources, number of chickens, breeds, and available space, and identify the priorities of your specific coop and chicken management system. As general guidelines, you will need the following.

Nesting Boxes:

Inside a chicken coop

Chickens need a quiet, dark place to lay their eggs. Ideally, one nesting box should be for every 3-4 hens. The boxes should be large enough for the hens to sit comfortably but small enough to discourage them from sleeping there.


chickens roost

Chickens naturally want to sleep off the ground to stay safe from predators. Provide roosting bars wide enough to comfortably perch (2-3 inches wide for full-sized breeds) and allow at least 8-10 inches of space per bird.


Chickens produce a lot of moisture and dust, which can harm their respiratory systems if not ventilated. Proper ventilation helps keep the chicken coop dry, reducing the risk of diseases.

Food and Water Containers:

chickens feeder

Ensure the feeders and water systems are positioned in a safe area, away from potential fecal or other contamination, and designed to prevent spillages that may increase food wastage or create extra humidity from the water.


Straw, wood shavings, or shredded paper are all suitable options. Bedding absorbs droppings and can help to control odor. It should be cleaned out regularly to maintain hygiene.


While not strictly necessary, some light (natural or artificial) is beneficial as chickens lay more eggs with more hours of light.

Heating Elements (if needed):

If you live in an extremely cold climate, consider installing a heat lamp for the winter months. However, chickens are generally quite hardy, and overheating can be more of a risk than them being cold.

Predator Proofing:

While technically an outside factor, predator-proofing is important enough to include here. This means the coop should have a latch, and windows or vents should be covered with predator-proof wire.

Dust Bath Area:

A dust bath area would be beneficial if space allows. Chickens naturally dust bathe to keep their feathers clean and free from parasites.

chickens feeding


In conclusion, designing and setting up a chicken coop involves careful consideration of your chickens’ needs for safety, comfort, space, roosting and nesting, food and water, sanitation, enrichment, and light. Like managing other farm animals, it’s about creating a safe and nurturing environment that caters to your chickens’ basic needs, promotes their health and productivity, and contributes to their overall welfare.

As each flock is unique, it’s essential to understand the specific needs of your chickens based on their breed, age, purpose, and the local climate. Consider these factors as you decide on the elements to include inside a chicken coop. Each piece supports your chickens ‘ well-being, from the right nesting boxes, roosts, and bedding to adequate ventilation, predator-proofing, and perhaps a dust bath area.

Remember, your flock’s health, productivity, and happiness depend on you and the environment you create for them. So, be mindful, creative, and responsive to their needs.

We hope this guide has helped guide you through what should be inside a chicken coop. If you found this information useful or have any additional tips or experiences to share, please leave a comment below. We love hearing from our readers and learning from their experiences. And remember, sharing is caring. If this guide could help someone you know, please share it with them or on social media. 


A Veterinarian who grew up in the countryside of a small Italian town and moved to live and work in the United Kingdom. I have spent most of my professional time trying to improve the quality of life of animals and the environmental and economic sustainability of farm enterprises.

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